Russian forts and settlements in Hawaii, Index of the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon. Pages in category "Former Portuguese colonies" The following 133 pages are in this category, out of 133 total. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia Far East: China, Taiwan (Formosa), Japan. The Portuguese occupied Angola in the 1500s with Soyo and Luanda being the first settlements. (21°45’N – 112°47’E) ? As a result, the language is the sixth most widely spoken language on the globe. Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700”, Portuguese: wooden fort on a hill near the port of Tenasserim 1520s. As well as many other travel sites in different languages. 1576 fortress – 23 Feb. 1605, Jacobs “The Portuguese town of Ambon 1576-1605″ in II Seminário de História Indo-Portuguesa”, Banda (Banda Islands): (04°32’S – 129°53’E), Solor (Lohajong or Lawayong, Solor Island): (08°27’S – 123°04’E) Fort with five stone bastions, Portuguese: 1561 settlement, 1566 fort – 18 Apr. I designed some internet sites including the www.colonialvoyage.com site dedicated to the history of geographical exploration and colonialism. to The Netherlands (1653 – ?) Anywhere on the coasts of Asia, America and Africa you can find a fort, a church, a geographical name or a family name, reminiscent of Portugal. This page is a list of every colony, dominion, protectorate, territory, dependencyetc. While preserving European neutrality, declaring the struggle against Belgium an internal conflict, the Netherlands faced all the fiercer challenges in their colonies. Through a slow process of conquest and political consolidation, from the twelfth to the fourteenth centuries, the Portuguese Crown claimed sovereignty over the territories that make up its modern … In 1830 an uprising in Java had to be subdued by force. in Asia, Portuguese Colonialism island near Macao): (? 1613. Other settlements and forts were established later with their main trade being slaves who were sent to the New World in exchange for products from Europe. abandoned (according to Boxer “The great ship from Amacon” p. 309 note 2). Pages in category "Former Portuguese colonies" The following 133 pages are in this category, out of 133 total. The Portuguese also held important islands in the Atlantic off the coast of The Luz Church in Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) was the first church that the Portuguese built in Madras in 1516. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Arabia and Persian Gulf. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century, Arabia, Persian Gulf. The pressure for Portugal to let go of its colonies began in the 20th century. ?? Portuguese rule in Asia was by turns ruthless (as when they began capturing Chinese children to sell into enslavement in Portugal), lackadaisical, and underfunded. They understood that the Portuguese would soon reach Asia and, in this competitive race to reach the Far East, the Spanish rulers decided to act. 1606 – 2 May 1663 abandoned) (**In Ternate the Spaniards occupied the Gammalamma Castle and Fort Don Pedro (Ciudad Nuestra Señora del Rosario), San Francisco Calomata and Fort San Pedro y Pablo Source: Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663” unpublished research), to The Netherlands *** (Jun. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, America. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century, Portuguese Empire: Africa, America and Asia maps, Portuguese Fort at Bidyah in the United Arab Emirates, Dutch and Portuguese remains in Sri Lanka: forts and churches, The Portuguese in Ceylon: The Portuguese in Sri Lanka before the war with the Dutch, Description of the Portuguese Forts and Settlements in Ceylon, as narrated by Captain João Ribeiro, Trincomalee: Bibliography. The Portuguese began colonizing Goa, which is in the Western region of India, in the 1500s as well. Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702” De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”, (15 Dec. 1941- Feb. 1942 occupation by Australian and Dutch troops), Ataúro Island or Pulo Kambing: circa (08°18’S – 125°32’E). The colonials liberated the city from the Muslims and began spreading Christianity and intermarrying with the locals. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century, Indonesia, Timor. Start studying Chapter 13 Part 6 [W.H.]. During this phase, Portugal focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers on the continent. A shipwrecked Portuguese Galleon, The Portuguese Fort on Solor Island, Indonesia, The Portuguese on Solor and in the Lesser Sunda Islands, The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, Ambon: The Portuguese in the Moluccas, Indonesia, Portuguese Fort in Ende Island, Indonesia, Population of the Portuguese Settlements in India, The Portuguese in Bassein (Baçaim, Vasai): the ruins of a Portuguese town in India, Salvador (Bahia): the capital of Colonial Brazil, Recife Forts: Fort do Brum, Fort das Cinco Pontas, Recife: the capital of sugar cane of Colonial Brazil, Governors and Viceroys of Portuguese Brazil, 1549-1760, Olinda: a UNESCO World Heritage site in Brazil, Paraty a Colonial Town in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Colonia del Sacramento: a Portuguese Fortress on the River Plate (Río de la Plata), The Jesuit Missions in South America: Jesuits Reductions in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil, The Fortress of Santo António da Ponta da Mina, Principe Island, The revolt of the slaves on the African island of São Tomé 1595, The Dutch on São Tomé and Principe: the attacks on the island of Principe (1598) and São Tomé (1599), A Portuguese fort in Madagascar: the fort near Tolanaro, Data on the independence of Portuguese colonies, African Countries with Portuguese as an Official Language, Fort Jesus Mombasa: a Portuguese fortress in Kenya, The Dutch in South Africa, 1652-1795 and 1802-1806, Dutch New York: The Dutch settlements in North America, The Dutch Burghers of Sri Lanka. Colonialism Six countries: Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Great Britain, France, and the United States, had colonies in Southeast Asia. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century, Architecture, Artillery, Numismatics, Furniture and Arts. 1613. Danvers “Portuguese in India” Boxer “Francisco Vieira de Figueiredo”, Lampacau or Lampazau (Lao-yan-than ? The Portuguese were officially kicked out in 1822 when Brazil attained its independence. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Asia. Portuguese: A battery was built between 1606/1615, the fort was never completed by the Portuguese; the Dutch assault of 1640 began before the fort was finished and at the end the Portuguese had to abandon their partly accomplished fort. Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century, Africa. English text revision by Dietrich Köster. At first Dias de Novais cooperated with Ndongo, his forces serving as mercenaries in… There was only a nominal submission to the Portuguese Crown by the small “Kingdoms” of the island. 1 American Colonies 1.1 North America 1.2 Africa 1.3 Asia 1.4 Oceania 2 Australian Colonies 2.1 )The Dutch made theirEast India Companyheadquarters in Bataviaon Java Island. Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History 17th-18th century, Arabia and Persian Gulf. All areas of the world that were once part of the Portuguese Empire The former Portuguese colony of the Republic of Cape Verde is an island country 570 kilometers off the West African coast. After independence, there was a massive migration of people from these three nations to Portugal. Marco Ramerini: Contact: e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, Web site dedicated to Arnold van Wickeren. They were uninhabited before the … Although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese, the decision was taken to hold it while exploring along the Atlantic African coast. This list may not reflect recent changes ().C Cabinda Province Cacheu Cape Verde in … There are no specific guidelines. Timão or Tamão (Shang-ch’wan island): Shangchuan Dao ? renamed Fort Concordia. …gave its name to the Portuguese colony of Angola. Portuguese colonies in Asia are the State of India, Macau and East Timor. The voyages of conquest have from the start proclaimed one of their main … 1613 – 1615 ?). WIC (West-Indische Compagnie), South East Asia and the Far East. Though the Portuguese Empire has since disappeared, its effects remain. In Asia, the Portuguese would conquer cities and then monopolize trade, whereas in Africa and the Americas they occupied extensive territories in which European political organization was superimposed on existing indigenous societies. Portuguese Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, Asia. Portugal seized the island of Goa, making it their major military and commercial base. Soldiers all contributed in different ways and colonist was first introduced to Southeast Asia by Iberian (Portuguese and Spanish) missionaries and colonists (Roxborogh, 1995). The Southern Province, also known simply as Goa, was the headquarters of Portuguese India, and seat of the Portuguese viceroy who governed the Portuguese possessions in Asia. Portuguese Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, America. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, India. The Portuguese did retreat from Asia after 1610, but they remained dominant in Brazil and in the Southern Atlantic, and therefore a general explanation has to account for these diverging outcomes. – 1851, ceded by treaty (1851/1854/1859) to The Netherlands, Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702” Villiers “The Dominican Mission and the sandalwood..” De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”, Sicca (Sikka or Sika, Flores Island): (08°44’S – 122°11’E), ceded by a treaty (1851-1854-1859) to the Netherlands, De Castro “As possessões portuguezas na Oceania”, Paga (Flores Island): (08°46’S – 122°02’E), ceded by a treaty (1851/1854/1859) to the Netherlands, Pomang Kaju (Pamakajo, Solor Island): (08°26’S – 122°58’E) circa, Cupão or Cupang (Kupang, Timor Island): (10°10’S – 123°35’E). ? Bibliography of Portuguese Colonial History 16th-18th century, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The Portuguese colonial empire was the first and the last European empire overseas, from the conquest of Ceuta (1415), in Morocco, North Africa, until the formal handover of Macau to the People’s Republic of China (1999). Portuguese colonization followed two basic patterns. The annexation of Goa by India from the Portuguese happened in 1961. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, Sri Lanka (Ceylon). One of the ways the Portuguese affected the places they occupied was in the language. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, West Africa. In domestic policies, an agreement was reached between the crown and the growing li… The official language is Portuguese and the country now supports a population of about 500,600. • At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. Located on the western side of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal is a small nation that had colonies in South America, Asia, and Africa. Other Asian Colonies…Portuguese based theirEast India Company inMalaka, Malaysia (untilthe Dutch stole it fromthem! Which statement is true in the context of European exploration in Asia? Copyright © 1998-2020. Portuguese Colonial Remains 16th-18th centuries, Africa. The only thing is that the article must be original and not previously published on other websites. Source: Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663” unpublished research), Marco Ramerini “Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663”, Ternate (Ternate Island): (00°45’N – 127°20’E) Fortaleza de São João Baptista or Castelo Gammalamma (1522), Portuguese: 1513 feitoria, 24 Jun. Portugal had intermittent relations with Ndongo from 1520, but it was only in 1575 that a Portuguese base was established—by Paulo Dias de Novais at Luanda Island. ), Portuguese: 1549 settlement, it was a respectable Portuguese settlement in 1560s – ? A key supporter of this policy was Infante Dom Henry the Navigator, who had been involved in the capture of Ceuta, and who took the lead role in promoting and financing Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in 1460. Goa was Portugal’s first territorial possession in Asia, captured by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1510, and it served as the main Portuguese base in the East for four and a half centuries. Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe, two small archipelagos located off the western coast of Africa, were also colonized by the Portuguese. The Portuguese in Brazil When the Portuguese arrived in Brazil in 1500, their situation as colonialists was very different from that of Spain in Mexico and Peru. ? Albuquerque had intended Goa to be a colony and a naval base, as distinct from the fortified factories which had been established in certain Indian seaports. 1522 fortress – 15 July 1575, to Spain ** (Apr. Boxer “The great ship from Amacon” Danvers “Portuguese in India”, Vocoxiura or Yokoseura (Yokose): (33°05’N – 129°42’E), Boxer “The great ship from Amacon” pp. These colonies allowed the Portuguese to trade goods, spread Catholicism, and control native populations. Links in bold represent territories that still exist. Finally I am passionate about astronomy. In 1936-1937 the Portuguese military colonial garrison in Macau (Portuguese colony in China) numbered exactly 497 men - 22 Portuguese officers, 35 Portuguese NCO's and 440 soldiers, including 224 native soldiers, assembled in It had mixed success. All rights reserved. In addition, it is one of the formal languages of bodies such as the European and the African Unions. 5,081 Views. or 1757? A history of the first settlements 1628-1677, The Dutch on Mauritius 1638-1658, 1664-1710, India. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, Arguin: A Portuguese Fortress in Mauritania 1445-1633, The main fort of Fernando de Noronha: Fortress of Nossa Senhora Dos Remédios, I primi contatti degli spagnoli con le Isole Molucche, 1521-1602, St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri or Thangassery, Kerala, India, The Catholic mission in Bengal prior to the nineteenth century, The Portuguese fort of Santiago, Cape Verde, The Role of the Portuguese Language in Lusophone Asia, Political Development of the former German Colonies since 1920, The Forts of the Spice Islands of Indonesia, Today, Bahrain: Portuguese Fort of Halat Bu Maher, Bahrain: Portuguese Fort of Qala’at al-Bahrain (Bahrain Fort), Maramuca: an exercise in the combined use of Portuguese records and oral tradition: the History of the Mwanamutapa Empire, Seventeenth Century Portuguese Earthworks in Rhodesia: Maramuca (Hartley/Chegutu), Maramuca: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe, Great Zimbabwe: a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe, Portuguese Forts, Markets (Feira) and Settlements in Zimbabwe, Massapa: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe, Piringani: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe, Old Portuguese Ruins in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Makaha: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) in Zimbabwe, Seventeenth Century Portuguese Earthworks in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe): Luanze (Mtoko/Mutoko), Luanze: Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe, Excavations At The Seventeenth Century Portuguese Site Of Dambarare, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Some Early Portuguese Relics from Dambarare, Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe), Angwa: a Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe, Portuguese objects in Ancient Mining in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and adjacent areas, Dambarare: a Portuguese Settlement, Market (Feira) and Fort in Zimbabwe, The Dutch West India Company. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore, The Russians in America: Alaska and California, Africa. Muar: (02°03’N – 102°34’E) Fortaleza de Muar (1604), Pacem or Passumah (Puuek, Sumatra Island): (05°09’N – 97°14’E), Portuguese: 1520/21 fort – May 1524* (*1523 Conceição Flores “Os Portugueses o o Sião no século XVI”), Gaspar Correia “Lendas da Índia” Tomo II ,Parte II ,pp.795, Makassar (Sulawesi Island): (05°08’S – 119°24’E), Portuguese: ? After Vasco da Gama rounded the southern end of Africa in 1497, Portugal became the first European power to gain sea access to Asia. After controlling the Malacca (Malaysia) in 1511, the What is the Difference Between the Vatican City and the Holy See. Afonso de Albuquerque’s dream was an infusion of Portuguese blood into each of the colonies. There were Portuguese settlements in and around Mylapore. 1607 – ?) List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, The Castle of Good Hope: A Dutch Fort in South Africa, The Dutch in Formosa 1624-1662, 1664-1668, Tidore: The Spanish forts on the island of Tidore, 1606-1663, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). In both Spanish and Portuguese colonies of Latin America the preaching orders of the Roman Catholic church - Franciscans, Dominicans and above all the Jesuits - play a prominent role. Also the length of the article is not a problem, the minimum lenght is about 450 words. Portuguese: 1660s. By the 1800s the Europeans were in a position to establish their authority over much of Asia, particularly the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. I research and write about history. For 60 years, the Portuguese-Spanish Union had the most intense struggle with a new dynamic maritime power, the Netherlands, for colonies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Traveler, writer of online tourist guides. (***In Ternate the Dutch built the Fort Malayo or Fort Orange), Hanna Des Alwi “Turbulent times past in Ternate and Tidore”, Amboina or Amboino (Kota Ambon, Ambon Island): (03°42’S – 128°10’E) Fortaleza da Nossa Senhora da Anunciada (1576), Portuguese: 1569 wooden fort (north coast), 1572 wooden fort (south coast), 25 Mar. Data on the independence of Portuguese colonies Posted by: Marco Ramerini in Africa , America , Asia , Portuguese Colonialism 1,615 Views This post is also available in: French German Italian Spanish Dutch Portuguese (Portugal) Written by Marco Ramerini. Leitão “Os Portugueses em Solor e Timor de 1515 a 1702”. Occupied by Timorese rebels for a short time in the year 1756? These are the remains of the first European country that explored the world in search of spices and souls. Photographer. Meanwhile, Portugal had lost most of its territory in Asia, but the decline of Portugal’s East Asian empire increased interest in its African colonies. Some of the resources that the Portuguese wanted were tobacco, sugar, Brazilwood from the forest, and several other cash crops. By 1750 Portuguese colonies in Africa were limited to Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea, but colonial rule was more pronounced in the first two colonies. Campos “History of the Portuguese in Bengal” Diffie-Winius “Foundation of the Portuguese empire 1415-1580” Guedes “Interferência e integração dos Portugueses na Birmania 1580-1630”, Portuguese: 1524 conquered, a few day after abandoned, Conceiçao Flores “Os Portugueses e o Sião no século XVI”. João de Barros em: “Da Ásia” Dec. III, Livro VIII, Capítulo II, p. 256/257, Siriao (Syriam): (16°46’N – 96°14’E) Fortaleza de Santiago do Siriao, Portuguese: 1599 tranqueira (wooden fort), 1601/2 fort and custom house – Mar. The colonials liberated the city from the Muslims and began spreading Christianity and intermarrying with the locals. In this struggle, the Portuguese had no previous Macao (Macau): (22°12’N – 113°33’E) Fortaleza de São Paulo do Monte (1617), Baluarte de Patane, Forte de Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto, Forte de Nossa Senhora da Penha de França, Fortaleza de São Francisco, Fortim de São Januário, Baluarte de São João, Fortaleza da Guia, Forte São Tiago da Barra (1616), Fortim de São Jerónimo, Fortim de São Pedro (1622). The History of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka) during Portuguese and Dutch rule, Trincomalee: The Dutch conquest and the abandonment of the Fort, Trincomalee: The arrival of the Danes, the Dutch and the construction of the Portuguese Fort, Trincomalee: The first contacts with the Portuguese, The History of Trincomalee during Portuguese and Dutch rule: Introduction, The Portuguese forts of Quelba and Corfacão (Khor Fakkan), The Portuguese forts of Curiate and Sidabo, The Portuguese on the Persian Gulf and on the Arabian Peninsula, The Fort of Malacca: Portuguese-Dutch Fortress of Malacca (Melaka), Flor de la Mar (Flor do Mar), 1511. 1613, to The Netherlands (18 Apr. Posted by: Marco Ramerini With the financial aid of Prince Henry the Navigator, famous explorers such as Vasco de Gama and Bartolomeu Dias led the exploration of these territories. The Portuguese Governor and Commander-in-Chief in Macau in 1941 was Navy Commander Gabriel Mauricio Teixeira. B. W. Diffie and G. D. Winius in the book “Foundations of the Portuguese Empire 1415-1580” write: “the capture of Asia’s greatest trading city by a mere 900 Portuguese and 200 Indians must rank as an event in the history of European expansion no less stunning than the better known conquest of Tenochtitlan by Hernando Cortés”. List of Portuguese colonial forts and possessions, Arabia and Persian Gulf. (British Post Office in Madeira). This sixteenth-century map shows the island of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti and Dominican Republic). They pyramid of social hierarchies in Spanish colonies demonstrates which difference between Spanish Likewise, it makes no sense to Law, Colonial Systems of, Portuguese EmpireEarly modern Portuguese society was multicultural; it emerged from a period of reconquest against the Muslims and was home to communities of Jews. By Ferdinand Bada on August 28 2018 in World Facts. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Colonies and Dependencies Portugal's overseas provinces in Africa are Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique and São Tome & Príncipe. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ). Bidau Portuguese (extinct in the 1960s): in the Bidau area of Dili, East Timor. Compared to all the other colonies, Brazil was easily the largest of them all in terms of population and area. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com. Portuguese Colonies. Dutch Ceylon, The Dutch East India Company: VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), Dutch and Courlanders on Tobago. Chincheo or Chinchew (Zhangzhou ?, Fukien): (24°31’N – 117°39’E) ? In 1936-1937 the Portuguese military colonial garrison in Macau (Portuguese colony in China) numbered exactly 497 men - 22 Portuguese officers, 35 Portuguese NCO's and 440 soldiers, including 224 native If you want to publish a study with regard to the geographical discoveries or colonialism, please contact me I will be happy to post it on Colonialvoyage. Portuguese: 1599 tranqueira (wooden fort), 1601/2 fort and custom house – Mar. In 1492 Christopher Columbus's discovery for Spain of the New World, which he believed to be Asia, led to disputes between the Spanish and Portuguese. After Portugal set its eyes on the country, they began colonizing Brazil after the signing of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which was signed in Spain. The gradual decline of the Portuguese empire was brought about by their small population, which led to a shortage of workers to look after the colonies as they kept on expanding into new territories. For almost a century (1500–1600), the Portuguese held a monopoly on European exploration and trade in the Indian Ocean. List of Dutch colonial forts and possessions, Trincomalee: The first British occupation and the definitive Dutch surrender, The French in Brazil: Saint-Alexis, France Antarctique (Rio de Janeiro), Ipiapaba and Sao Luís do Maranhão, Russian presence in Hawaii. Portuguese/Spanish expedition 1596-1599. I have published some writings on the history of geographical exploration and colonialism, particularly on the spice islands, the Moluccas. In fact, the Portuguese considered Brazil so important that the royal family ruled both Brazil and Portugal from Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century. or 1758? to The Netherlands (1646 – ?) Aside from Goa, which was their jewel due to the spices, the Portuguese also established settlements in other places such as Daman, Mumbai, Chaul, and other places. Of course, the argument is the colonial history and everything connected to it. Shared postcolonial legacy These five African countries are former colonies of the Portuguese Empire, which collapsed shortly after the Carnation Revolution military coup of 1974 in Lisbon.The strains of the Portuguese Colonial War overextended and weakened the Portuguese dictatorship and precipitated the overthrow of António de Oliveira Salazar's regime. In 1456 when the Portuguese first landed in the Cape Verde islands, they described them as being uninhabited. This web site was first on line on 3 October 1998 (at geocities.com as "Dutch Portuguese Colonial History"). Theyexplored and colonizedall around present dayAustralia and NewZealand. (Sao Tome and Principe are two small islands making up a single country.) In addition to human slaves, diamonds and gold were also traded. wooden fort *, According to L.F.Thomaz “L’ambassade de 1521” in: Bouchon e Thomaz “Voyage dans le Delta du Gange et de l’Irrawady: relation portugaise anonyme 1521” and Subrahmanyam “Improvising Empire – Portuguese trade and settlements in the Bay of Bengal 1500 – 1700” or “”Comércio e conflito – A presença portuguesa no Golfo de Bengala 1500 – 1700”, *It’s probable that this fort wasn’t built by the Portuguese.
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